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Race, Risk, and the Emergence of Federal Redlining – P. Fishback, J. LaVoice, A. Shertzer, R. Walsh, NBER Working Paper Series

Housing markets have been shaped by racial discrimination and segregation throughout American history. Racially restrictive covenants in deeds, steering by real estate agents, slum clearance and the construction of large public housing projects, the routing of interstate highways, discrimination in mortgage lending, the location of segregated schools, unequal labor market opportunities, threats of outright violence directed at black families, and lack of protection of property and civil rights have all profoundly affected where African Americans lived and the degree to which they could accumulate housing wealth (Kucheva and Sander, 2014; LaVoice, 2020; Brinkman and Lin, 2019; Carruthers and Wanamaker, 2017; Aneja and Avenancio-Leon, 2019).

WRITTEN BY | February 12, 2021

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